Saturday, December 9, 2023

Parts Of Foot And Ankle

Can Rheumatoid Arthritis Affect Your Foot And Ankle

Ankle Anatomy Animated Tutorial

Rheumatoid arthritis in the foot and ankle is common. RA often starts in the small joints of the hands, wrists and feet. More than 90% of people with RA acquire foot and ankle symptoms over the course of the disease. In about 20% of patients, foot and ankle symptoms are the first signs of RA.

The joints of your body are covered with a lining known as synovium that lubricates the joint and makes it easier to move. In RA, the immune system attacks your bodys own tissues, including the synovium. It swells, gets inflamed, and destroys the surfaces of the bones that comprise the joint, along with the ligaments and other tissues that support it. Damaged, weakened ligaments can lead to . Bones can also lose density and become soft. Bone density conditions can cause or bone collapse.

What Are The Most Common Causes Of Pain In Front Of Ankle And Top Of Foot

There are many causes of pain in front of ankle and top of foot. Some people experience this type of pain due to a condition called plantar fasciitis, while others have it because theyve worn shoes that dont fit properly or have high heels on their feet all day long.

If youre experiencing any kind of discomfort in your ankles or feet, we recommend visiting an orthopedic specialist so they can diagnose the problem correctly before starting treatment plans!

So with that said, lets have break down of the possible problems.

Bones Of The Forefoot

Now we head to the part of the feet that arguably gets the most attention the toes.

You know, that part of the foot where you decide what color of pedicure you want.

This area is the forefoot and it’s an important part of your feet because theyre responsible for helping you push your feet off the ground when walking.

The forefoot is made up of bones called the metatarsals, phalanges, and sesamoid bones.

Lets take a closer look at each of these bones.

Metatarsals – Each foot contains five long bones called metatarsals that connect the foot bones to the toe bones.

PhalangesSesamoid bones

Youve made it through the regions of the feet!

Now its time to learn about the joints. Your feet are very complex because theyre packed with many small joints that make your feet functional.

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Qualified Caring Podiatrist In New Hampshire

If you have questions or concerns about the anatomy of your feet, contact Dr. Nagy, your qualified, experienced, and compassionate podiatrist in New Hampshire. At Nagy Footcare, we believe you deserve to be listened to. We believe you deserve to have your questions and concerns addressed. If you are suffering from foot or ankle pain, we believe you deserve to move toward becoming pain free. We believe you should fully understand what is causing your pain and what your best treatment options are. We believe you should have access to the newest technologies and treatments available, and we want to help you. , your New Hampshire podiatrist, today.

At Nagy Footcare, our best day is when you wake up with no foot pain.

What Surgery Is There For Rheumatoid Arthritis Of The Foot And Ankle

Ankle Fractures Broken Ankle

surgery in the foot or ankle is the most common. These procedures provide rheumatoid arthritis foot and/or ankle pain relief, but can compromise flexibility. Other procedures include and toe joint resections. The appropriate option depends on each patients condition and the joints that are affected.

Also Check: How To Tape Your Own Foot For Plantar Fasciitis

Pain In Front Of Ankle And Top Of Foot

Do you have pain in front of ankle and top of foot? If so, youre not alone. Many people experience this type of pain, which can be quite debilitating.

In this blog post, we will discuss the causes of pain in this area and ways to treat it.

We hope that by reading this post, you will have a better understanding of what is causing your pain and how to make it go away!


  • 2 When should you see a doctor about your pain in front of ankle and top of foot?
  • Anatomy Of A Joint Structure

    A joint is a part of a body where two or more bones meet. The ends of these bones are covered by Cartilage. To define, Cartilage is a connective tissue structure that helps provide shock absorbing properties when performing activities. In addition to cartilage, Synovial Fluid presents within each joint space and promotes smooth movement of the joint. There are also important connective tissues called Tendons and Ligaments that make up each body structure. A tendon is a tissue that connects muscle to bone. Similarly, ligaments connect bone to bone.

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    Problems Linked To Low And High Arches

    Arches that are higher or lower than average can increase your risk of developing other problems, such as:

    • corns and calluses.

    The self-care tips can help ease pain in your arches.

    Changing your footwear to a well-made running trainer that you feel supports the shape of your arch may prevent further painful changes to the structure of your arches.

    Insoles and arch supports can help but its best to visit a foot specialist, such as a podiatrist, to get ones designed specifically for your foot shape.

    If youre buying new footwear its best to take any adaptations, such as insoles, padding, or arch supports with you, as you may need a larger shoe size to fit them in comfortably.

    Losing weight, if you need to, can reduce the strain on your arches and may prevent further long-term changes.

    You may find it difficult to do exercises that put a lot of pressure through your feet. Swimming is a good way to improve and maintain your fitness because the water supports your body weight.

    Details Of Foot & Ankle Anatomy

    How To Increase Ankle Mobility And Dorsiflexion

    The ankle joint joins the lower leg bones to the foot and heel bones and allows movement in all directions. Soft tissue within the ankle joint provides stability, support the arch of the foot and connect bones to other bones.

    There are soft tissues that are found in the ankle:

    • The Achilles tendon, the longest tendon in the body, connects the calf muscle to the heel.
    • Cartilage provides cushioning between the bones.
    • Ligaments connect bones to other bones and holds them in place, providing stability to the joints.
    • The Plantar fascia is the largest ligament in the foot, extending along the bottom surface of the foot. It is involved in maintaining the arch of the foot. The plantar fascia ligament stretches and contracts to provide balance and strength to the foot.
    • Muscles help to move the foot up and down, raise the toes up and curl and stabilize the arch.

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    Anatomy Lesson: The Foot & Ankle Our Foundation For Balance

    Put one foot in front of the other. This simple concept is one most of us take for granted. We might struggle to learn it as infants, taking our first steps. Once we get the hang of it and grow to be adults, we perhaps find ourselves striving to do it at least 10,000 times a day.

    Sometimes even the simplest of concepts are more complex than they appear. We wanted to take some time to introduce you to the anatomy of whats responsible for making it possible for us to take steps and keep our balance. Lets take a closer look at the foot and ankle, and why theyre so important, especially as we age.

    Table Of Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms Of The Foot And Ankle

    Part of the foot
    Top of the foot. Ligaments that support the midfoot become weak, and this can lead to collapsed arches. . Once the arch collapses, the front of the foot may start to point outward. RA also damages the cartilage, causing arthritic pain. Over time, the shape of foot can change. For example, large bony bump on the arch can appear.
    Forefoot Toes and ball of feet. Changes include bunions, claw toes, and pain under ball of foot. While each of these is common, in RA the problem is compounded as they are combined. The bunion is usually severe, and the big toe crosses over the second toe. There can be painful bumps on the ball of the foot causing calluses. These bumps occur when bones in the midfoot are pushed down from joint dislocations in the toes. Dislocations of toes 2-5 cause them to become prominent on the top of the foot, creating claw toes that become fixed and rigid. In severe cases, ulcers can form from the abnormal pressure.

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    When Should You See A Doctor About Your Pain In Front Of Ankle And Top Of Foot

    When is it time to seek medical attention for this type of pain? Pain can be caused by many different things like arthritis, tendonitis, bursitis or even bone spasm.

    The best way to know if your symptoms are serious enough that they warrant seeing the doctor would be asking yourself some questions such as:

    Is my ankle hurting when I bend at all angles? or Does tingling occur down my leg only during periods where movement occurs between these times? or Have there been any changes to the level of pain?!

    These types of inquiries can help determine if there may be something else going on besides just plain old soreness from overuse which could lead to further damage.

    When Should I See A Healthcare Professional About Foot Or Ankle Pain

    Anatomy of the Ankle

    Some foot pain can become more than a short-term problem. If you cannot treat the pain yourself or you have a condition that could affect the joints or soft tissue, it may need further investigation.

    You should speak to your doctor or a footcare specialist if:

    • your pain does not improve in the first few days
    • your pain is getting worse
    • it is still causing problems after two weeks of self-care
    • you have sores that are not healing
    • your skin has changed colour especially if its turned dark blue or black
    • your foot has changed shape or is really swollen
    • you have a high temperature or feel hot and shivery
    • it is red, warm, or swollen as you may have an infection
    • the problem keeps coming back or lasts longer than three months
    • you have an inflammatory condition, such as rheumatoid arthritis or scleroderma
    • you have diabetes
    • you are taking steroids, biologics or other drugs that affect your immune system.

    Your doctor may want to refer you to a specialist in foot care, such as a podiatrist, physiotherapist, or an orthotist, for a diagnosis and treatment.

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    Muscles And Tendons Of The Foot And Ankle

    Muscles are bundle of fibrous tissue that have the ability to contract and as a result producing movement, power and maintaining the posture of the body. Tendons are structures that attach a muscle to a bone. In the foot and ankle tendons are named after the muscles that power them with the exception of the Tendon Achilles.

    The muscles acting on the foot can be classified into extrinsic muscles, those originating on the anterior or posterior aspect of the lower leg, and intrinsic muscles, originating on the dorsal or plantar aspects of the foot.

    The gastrocnemius is an exception in that it originates from the back of the thigh bone just above the knee and inserts into the heel bone .

    The Basics Of Ankle Anatomy And Foot Anatomy

    Basic anatomy for any joint structure within the body includes bones, joints, muscles, tendons, and ligaments. For our purposes, we will be discussing Ankle Anatomy and Foot Anatomy structures specifically.

    Terms to Know:

    • Distal: situated away from the center of the body
    • Proximal: situated closer to the center of the body than distal

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    Soft Tissues Of The Ankle And Foot

    Our feet and ankle bones are held in place and supported by various soft tissues such as cartilage, ligaments, muscles, tendons and bursae.

    Cartilage is the flexible, shiny, smooth tissue on the ends of bones that meet to form a joint. Cartilage provides cushioning between the bones allowing smooth movement.

    Ligaments are tough rope-like tissue that connect bones to other bones, and holds them in place providing stability to the joints. The plantar fascia is the largest ligament in the foot, originating from the heel bone to the forefoot, it extends along the bottom surface of the foot and is involved in maintaining the arch of the foot. The plantar fascia ligament stretches and contracts to provide balance and strength to the foot. Lateral ligaments on the outside of the foot and medial ligaments on the inside of the foot provide stability and allow up and down movement of the foot.

    The foot is made up of 20 muscles, which help in movement. The main muscles include:

    • Anterior tibial muscle: allows up and down movement of the foot
    • Posterior tibial muscle: supports the arch
    • Peroneal tibial muscle: controls movement on the outside of the ankle
    • Extensors: enable the ankle to raise the toes just before stepping forward
    • Flexors: stabilize the toes against the floor
    • Smaller muscles are also present to help the toes lift and curl.

    Achilles Tendon Pain / Achilles Tendonopathy

    Foot & Ankle Strengthening & Stretch Exercise Program For Intrinsics, Arch, Athletes and Runners

    Foot and Ankle Exam

    Achilles tendinopathy is one of the most common foot pathologies. It can affect both athletes and recreational exercisers, being reported in inactive people as well. Clinically it manifests with foot pain on exertion associated with swellings, nodules and tenderness on palpation of the tendon.

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    Other Causes Of Foot Pain

    Pain in the foot can be a consequence of damage, pressure or rubbing over a long period of time.

    Wearing badly fitting shoes, pregnancy, injury, or putting too much strain through specific parts of your foot can all cause changes in the shape of your feet. Often, these changes are painful and can affect your ability to do things.

    Sometimes, its our choice of shoes that has the biggest impact on the structure of our feet and the problems we develop, such as:


    Corns are raised areas of hard, knobbly skin which develop where calluses have been left untreated. They often cause a burning sensation. A corn is a permanent change to your foot which will need care and management to stop it becoming too painful. You can manage corns by gently filing or pumicing them each week. You should never cut the skin with a blade.

    Corns and calluses will usually grow back within four to six weeks unless you reduce the pressure on the area. Wearing softer, roomier footwear and placing a cushioned pad over the corn or callus can help.


    A neuroma causes sudden shooting, stabbing, or burning pain. Most commonly it affects the third and fourth toes and the ball of your foot. It can feel like there is a small stone under your foot and your toes may become numb or tingly. It is caused by a damaged or irritated nerve and often becomes more painful over time. It is also known as Mortons neuroma and can be made worse by:


    Clawed, mallet, retracted and hammer toes


    Windlass Mechanism Of The Foot

    The plantar aponeurosis acts similarly to a windlass mechanism. A windlass is typically a horizontal cylinder that rotates with a crank or belt on a chain or rope to pull heavy objects. The common use of a windlass is in pulling the anchor of the ship known as an anchor windlass. This mechanism can be seen in the foot. When the MTP joints are hyperextended, the plantar aponeurosis becomes taut as it is wrapped around the MTP joints. This actions brings the metatarsal and tarsal bones together converting it into a rigid structure and eventually rising the longitudinal arches. This function is important in providing a rigid lever for gait propulsion during push off.

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    Bursitis Of The Ankle

    Bursitis is inflammation of one or more bursae in your ankle. Bursae are small sacs that produce a lubricating fluid that helps reduce friction between tissues of the body.

    The most common symptom of bursitis is pain at the site of the inflamed bursa. Other symptoms may include swelling, warmth and redness.

    Treatment for bursitis of the ankle may include:

    • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs , such as ibuprofen or naproxen
    • Physical therapy
    • Surgery if needed

    Muscular And Tendon Anatomy Of The Ankle

    Foot &  Ankle Disorders

    The posterior side of the lower leg houses the calf muscles. These muscles attach to the Achilles tendon, which is the largest tendon in the body. This is exposed to large amounts of force in activities such as running or jumping, making it prone to injury. The Tibialis Posterior muscle also lives in the posterior side of the lower leg. Continuing, the tendon associated with this muscle crosses over the middle portion of the ankle and is called the Posterior Tibialis Tendon. Those with flat feet may be at risk for additional strain on this tendon, which if not addressed, can lead to tendonitis.

    The lateral compartment of the lower leg contains two muscles, the Peroneal Brevis and the Peroneal Longus muscles. Subsequently, the tendons of these muscles travel on the outside of the ankle and can also be subject to strain with overuse. Other important structures over the lateral ankle include three lateral ligaments: the Anterior Talofibular Ligament , the Calcaneofibular Ligament , and the Posterior Talofibular Ligaments . These structures are vital for stability of the ankle. Injury to these ligaments, as commonly seen with ankle sprains, can lead to long-term instability if not treated properly. Visit our blog What to do for a Sprained Ankle to learn more about how to treat an ankle sprain.

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