Saturday, November 25, 2023

Hip Knee Ankle Foot Orthosis

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Hip Knee Ankle Foot Orthosis (hkafo brace)

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Afos And Kafos For Knee Instability Related To Neuromuscular And Central Nervous System Disorders

In a pilot study, Arazpour and co-workers determined the effect of a powered KAFO on the physiological cost index, walking speed and the distance walked in people with poliomyelitis compared to when walking with a KAFO with drop lock knee joints. A total of 7 subjects with poliomyelitis volunteered for the study and undertook gait analysis with both types of KAFOs. Walking with the powered KAFO significantly reduced walking speed and the distance walked , and also, it did not improve physiological cost index values compared to walking with the locked KAFO. The authors concluded that using a powered KAFO did not significantly improve any of the primary outcome measures during walking for poliomyelitis subjects. They stated that this powered KAFO design did not improve the physiological cost index of walking for people with poliomyelitis when compared to walking with a KAFO with drop lock knee joints. This may have been due to the short training period used or the bulky design and additional weight of the powered orthosis further research is therefore warranted.

Gait Training With Bilateral Kafos

In patients with complete SCI or incomplete SCI without functional ambulation skill, interventions may include bracing accompanied by instruction in alternative gait patterns. The most commonly taught pattern is a 2-point swing-through pattern with the use of forearm crutches and bilateral knee-ankle-foot orthoses with the knee joints locked in extension and the ankles locked in slight dorsiflexion. To utilize this technique effectively, individuals must have normal UE function with excellent strength and endurance and preferably some preservation of active trunk control . They must also have full passive hip extension, ankle dorsiflexion, and lumbar extension ROM.

The most efficient KAFO gait sequence is as follows :


Momentary balance is achieved by extending the hips and trunk with weight shifted forward over the ball of the foot and arms extended with the crutch tips behind the position of the feet. In this position the locked ankle of the brace is providing the forward stability.


Both crutches are lifted and extended forward simultaneously, and weight is transferred to the crutches in a forward falling motion.


Full weight is then born on the UEs while both legs are lifted and simultaneously swung through to a point in front of the crutch tips.


A forceful push on the crutches is used at the same time the trunk is extended to push the hips forward into extension and achieve the balance position noted in item 1.

William Lovegreen, Ajit B. Pai, in, 2019

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Ankle Contraction Splints / Static Dynamic Afos

According to Medicare Durable Medical Equipment Carrier Guidelines, a static-dynamic AFO is a pre-fabricated AFO that has all of the following characteristics:

  • Applies a dorsiflexion force to the ankle , and
  • Designed to accommodate either plantar fasciitis or an ankle with a plantar flexion contracture up to 45°, and
  • Has a soft interface, and
  • Used by a patient who is minimally ambulatory or non-ambulatory.
  • Ankle flexion contracture is a condition in which there is shortening of the muscles and/or tendons that plantarflex the ankle with the resulting inability to bring the ankle to 0 degrees by passive range of motion.

    Walking With Kneeanklefoot Orthoses

    HKAFO Hip Knee Ankle Foot Orthosis for Hip Fracture Femoral Femur

    Bilateral kneeanklefoot orthoses can be used to walk with either a jumping or reciprocal gait pattern. Both strategies rely on forces exerted through walking aids. The legs move in response to these forces. It is important to remember that, unlike parallel bars which are fixed to the ground, patients cannot pull up through walking aids. They can only push down or laterally.

    The jumping gait pattern involves placing both crutches in front of the feet and then swinging both legs through simultaneously15,60 by extending the shoulders. If the feet are moved up to the crutches the gait is called a swing-to pattern. Alternatively, if the feet are moved past the crutches the gait is called a swing-through pattern.61 Both swing patterns are physically demanding17,19,26 but provide a quick way of getting around . In contrast, the reciprocal gait pattern involves moving the feet forwards one at a time. Each leg is swung forwards by elevating the pelvis on the swing side and circumducting the leg . One crutch is placed in front of the body while the opposite foot is moved forwards. This is a relatively slow way to ambulate.

    Joan E. Edelstein PT, MA, FISPO, CPed, in, 2012

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    Metal And Leather Afos And Kafos

    Metal and leather AFOs and KAFOs are the traditional design to which most polio patients would have first been exposed. After a significant amount of wear, these devices will mold well to the patient’s body, and this characteristic tends to make them extremely comfortable. Unfortunately, the metal and leather design does not provide the best control during a gait cycle. Often, patients may be reluctant to trial a new design or material because of the comfort factor. It is up to the practitioner to discuss options with the patient and determine whether a new material or design may be beneficial for the patient for improved comfort or function.

    Alberto Esquenazi, Mukul Talaty, in, 2019

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    Hipkneeanklefoot And Trunkhipkneeanklefoot Orthoses

    HKAFO Orthosis with Twister hip joint

    A pair of KAFOs is connected by a pelvic band. The HKAFO restricts hip rotation and abduction and adduction. If the hip joint include a lock, the orthosis also restricts hip flexion and extension. Although these orthoses are occasionally prescribed for patients with low-level paraplegia, the orthoses are difficult to don and cumbersome to wear. The patient usually requires crutches or other assistive devices when ambulating. HKAFOs are seldom prescribed for older adults.

    If a trunk orthosis is added to a pair of KAFOs, the resulting orthosis is a THKAFO. The orthosis controls the paralyzed trunk and lower limbs. The wearer usually ambulates with a swing-to or swing-through crutch gait. Even heavier and more cumbersome than an HKAFO, the THKAFO is rarely used on a regular basis because gait is fatiguing and slow, and transferring from sitting to standing is awkward.

    Joan Hou, … John R. Fox, in, 2019

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    Putting On Your Hkafo And Rgo

  • Open the Velcro closure straps.
  • Place the device on its back on a flat, stable surface.
  • Unlock all knee joints and hip joints. This will help make sure the child is properly seated and positioned in the orthosis.
  • Apply the full-length socks your orthotist provided.
  • Gently lay the child into the orthosis.
  • Check to ensure childs heels are completely seated in the orthosis.
  • Secure all fabric fastener closures starting at the feet and working your way up.
  • Lock hip and knee joints, and then doublecheck them to make sure they are locked.
  • Slowly lift child and place in a walker or assisted standing area.
  • This information is for educational purposes only. It is not intended to replace the advice of your health care providers.If you have any questions, talk with your doctor or others on your health care team.If you are a Gillette patient with urgent questions or concerns, please contact Telehealth Nursing at .

    Introduction To Complex Orthoses

    Original Editor Robin TacchettiDonna FisherTop Contributors

    Complex orthoses are devices designed to assist multiple joints. These orthoses are not as common as ankle-foot orthoses . They are designed for patients with extensive weakness in the lower limbs. The purpose of these complex orthoses are to:

  • Provide support and protection
  • Provide stability
  • Two types of complex orthoses will be discussed in this page: the knee-ankle-foot orthosis and the hip-knee-ankle-foot orthosis .

    Complex orthoses are more substantial devices. Thus, more skill and experience are required to fit these devices. When fitting a complex orthosis, the main components of an orthotic assessment include:

    • Medical / physical: it is necessary to know the medical condition
    • Range of motion / muscle power: to better understand what joints need support:
    • Foot/ankle: dorsiflexion / plantarflexion, inversion / eversion
    • Knee: extension / flexion, instability
    • Hip: extension / flexion, adduction / abduction
    • Look at any fixed contractures: hip, knee or ankle
  • For muscle power:
  • Which joints are affected by weakness?
  • Power < 3 = not functional
  • Strength determines the design / type of joints used in the orthosis
    • Biomechanical: it is essential to understand the biomechanics of each patient and to determine where they need additional support
    • Sensation: be aware of potential skin breakdown or discomfort

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    Ankle Foot Orthoses And Knee Ankle Foot Orthoses

  • AFOs and KAFOs used in minimally ambulatory or non-ambulatory persons

    Static or dynamic positioning ankle foot orthoses and foot drop splints

  • Static or dynamic positioning ankle foot orthoses

    Aetna considers static or dynamic positioning ankle-foot orthoses medically necessary DME if all of the following criteria are met:

  • The static or dynamic positioning ankle-foot orthoses is used as a component of a therapy program that includes active stretching of the involved muscles and/or tendons, and
  • The contracture is interfering or expected to interfere significantly with the member’s functional abilities, and
  • There is a reasonable expectation of the ability to correct the contracture, and
  • The member has a plantar flexion contracture of the ankle with dorsiflexion on passive range of motion testing of at least 10 degrees .
  • If a static or dynamic positioning ankle-foot orthosis is used for the treatment of a plantar flexion contracture, the pre-treatment passive range of motion must be measured with a goniometer and documented in the medical record. There must be documentation of an appropriate stretching program carried out by professional staff or caregiver .A static or dynamic positioning ankle-foot orthosis is considered medically necessary for plantar fasciitis.

    A static or dynamic positioning ankle-foot orthosis and replacement interface is not considered medically necessary for the following indications:

  • AFOs and KAFOs used in ambulatory persons

  • Custom Hkafo Fabrication In Las Vegas

    HKAFO For Both Sides Hip Knee Ankle Foot Orthosis For Hip Fracture ...

    Imagine, no more chaffing, loose belts, or stiff joints. Have you ever wished you could just fix one thing about your orthotic device to make it work the way you really need it to? Having an HKAFO custom-made by our Las Vegas orthotics fabrication experts means you get the proper fit. A mobility device that fits and feels the way it should, is going to serve you better because you wont dread having to use it. We can also make cosmetic changes that add fun to your orthotic.

    We can customize an off-the-shelf brace to work the way it should for you and your lifestyle or create something fully custom.

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    Orthoses And Mobility Devices In Pediatrics

    The landscape of orthotics and mobility devices for children with NMDs can be somewhat different than that for adults. Orthotic options more often include KAFOs, hip-knee-ankle-foot orthoses, and reciprocating gait orthoses. Children tend to tolerate bulky orthoses better than adults do. In adults, other considerations, including rapidity of disease course, energy cost of using complicated, heavy orthoses, and psychological barriers, often restrict the range of orthoses used.

    Upright environmental exploration promotes cognitive, motor, and social development, and so is encouraged to the greatest extent possible. Standing frames, caster carts, and reverse walkers can be used to optimize standing.

    For children, wheelchair design considerations include flexibility to accommodate growth and the incorporation of educational technologies, capabilities for facilitating interactions with peers, and manageability and transportability by families. Options include seats that can lower to the floor to allow for play with peers.

    H.I. Krebs, B.T. Volpe, in, 2013

    The Knee Ankle Foot Orthosis

    The overall aim of an orthosis is providing the patient with the greatest possible safety and mobility in everyday life. A knee ankle foot orthosis is used to supplement and support lost or weakened leg functions. It provides correction, stabilization, guidance or off-loading of the entire leg .

    The difference between a KAFO and a lower leg orthosis is the possibility of integrating a movable knee joint.

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    Hcpcs Codes Covered If Selection Criteria Are Met:

    THKAFO for Spinal Cord Injury #mycaremedical

    E1815 Dynamic adjustable ankle extension/flexion device, includes soft interface material L1900 Ankle-foot orthosis , spring wire, dorsiflexion assist calf band, custom fabricated L1902 Ankle orthosis, ankle gauntlet or similar, with or without joints, prefabricated, off-the-shelf L1904 Ankle orthosis, ankle gauntlet or similar, with or without joints, custom fabricated L1906 Ankle foot orthosis, multiligamentus ankle support, prefabricated, off-the-shelf L1907 Ankle orthosis, supramalleolar with straps, with or without interface/pads, custom fabricated L1910 AFO, posterior, single bar, clasp attachment to shoe counter, prefabricated, includes fitting and adjustment L1920 AFO, single upright with static or adjustable stop , custom fabricated L1930 AFO, plastic or other material, prefabricated, includes fitting and adjustment L1932 AFO, rigid anterior tibial section, total carbon fiber or equal material, prefabricated, includes fitting and adjustment L1940 AFO, plastic or other material, custom-fabricated L1945 AFO, molded to patient model, plastic, rigid anterior tibial section , custom-fabricated L1950 Ankle foot orthosis, spiral, , plastic, custom-fabricated L1951 Ankle foot orthosis, spiral , plastic or other material, prefabricated, includes fitting and adjustment L1960 AFO, posterior solid ankle, plastic, custom-fabricated L1970 AFO, plastic, with ankle joint, custom-fabricated L2108 AFO, fracture orthosis, tibial fracture cast orthosis, custom-fabricated L3208 L4010

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    Arturo Zancan Md Maria V Beretta Micaela Schmid Phd Marco Schieppati Md

    AbstractKey words

    Hemiplegic patients always show alterations of walking pattern kinematics and slow walking speed, even if the gait is tripod- or cane-assisted . Ankle-foot orthoses are often prescribed to those patients to obtain a better heel-strike, a more dynamic and balanced gait, and a lower energy expenditure during walking . Knee-ankle-foot orthoses are rarely used in hemiplegic patients, because of their weight and their supposed disturbance of walking patterns . While AFOs are mainly used to counteract the foot plantar flexion, they are also reported to enhance the paretic quadriceps muscle activity and lower-limb swing in hemiplegic subjects .

    This study developed a device for the lower limb that could correct the abnormal foot posture, while simultaneously facilitating the swing phase of the lower limb. In our opinion, this could be done by “linking” the patient’s affected lower limb and the opposite body side. Following this idea, we developed a strap-based linkage system, which is a “sling-like” product. We then performed a kinematic analysis of the new, simple, low-cost sling in one representative hemiplegic patient and compared the analysis of the sling to a commonly prescribed AFO.

    At the moment of the walking tests, the subject presented an upper-limb recovery classified as Phase 1, according to Brunnstrom :

    The custom-made sling consisted of inextensible textile stripes, as shown in Figure 1 and 1:

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